File and save to read later if you are busy as this is a rare review of the history of Zionism with it's zigs and zags and detractors external and internal.
The white supremacism thing is a bit over done. One expects a professor to know the history of all those able to rape and pillage when they had the ability to do so.
That this was a multi-racial, multi-ethic endeavor And when there was no outside enemy to unite the tribes, intra-tribal slaughter was the atrocity de jour. Jones Alexis wrote recently of the huge slave trade of the Barbary pirates.
When the British were using their navy to block the slave trade some of the tribes hired English barristers to pursue court cases that the Brits we interfering in the cultures and 'internal affairs' of the respective countries.
This is just one of the countless footnotes airbrushed out of the contemporary flagations on the slave trade, but that is a subject for another day Jim W. The leap that the biological sciences of race and heredity would make in the 19th century of considering contemporary European Jews racial descendants of the ancient Hebrews would, as a result, not be a giant one.
Less interested in expediting the second coming of Christ as were the Millenarians, these secular anti aging charlatani austin, from Napoleon Bonaparte to British foreign secretary Lord Palmerston to Ernest Laharanne, the private secretary of Napoleon III in the s, sought to expel the Jews of Europe to Palestine in order to set them up as agents of European imperialism in Asia.
Marr was careful to decouple anti-Semitism from the history of Christian hatred of Jews on the basis of religion, emphasising, in line with Semitic philology and racial theories of the 19th century, that the distinction to be made between Jews and Aryans was strictly racial.
Indeed that the Jews were not European at all and that their very presence in Europe is what causes anti-Semitism.
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The reason why Jews caused so many problems for European Christians had to do with their alleged rootlessness, that they lacked a country, and hence country-based loyalty. In the Romantic age of European nationalisms, anti-Semites argued that Jews did not fit in the new national configurations, and disrupted national and racial purity essential to most European nationalisms.
This is why if the Jews remained in Europe, the anti-Semites argued, they could only cause hostility among Christian Europeans. The only solution was for the Jews to exit from Europe and have their own country.
Needless to say, religious and secular Jews opposed this horrific anti-Semitic line of thinking. Orthodox and Reform Jews, Socialist and Communist Jews, cosmopolitan and Yiddishkeit cultural Jews, all agreed that this was a dangerous ideology of hostility that sought the expulsion of Jews from their European homelands. Now you know why.
The Jewish Haskalahor Enlightenment, which emerged also in the 19th century, anti aging charlatani austin to assimilate Jews into European secular gentile culture and have them shed their Jewish culture. Reform Judaism, as a Christian- and Protestant-like variant of Judaism, would emerge from the bosom of the Haskalah.
Zionists after Herzl even agreed and affirmed that Jews were separate racially from Aryans.
As for Yiddishthe living language of most European Jews, all Zionists agreed that it should be abandoned. The majority of Jews continued to resist Zionism and understood its precepts as those of anti-Semitism and as a continuation of the Haskalah quest to shed Jewish culture and assimilate Jews into European secular gentile culture, except that Zionism sought the latter not inside Europe but at a geographical remove following the expulsion of Jews from Europe.
The Bund joined the existing anti-Zionist Jewish coalition of Orthodox and Reform rabbis who had combined forces a few months earlier to prevent Herzl from convening the first Zionist Congress in Munich, which forced him to move it to Basel.
Jewish anti-Zionism across Europe and in the United States had the support of the majority of Jews who continued to view Zionism as an anti-Jewish movement well into the s.
The Nazis would not be an exception in this anti-Semitic chain of pro-Zionist enthusiasts.
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Indeed, the Zionists would strike a deal with the Nazis very early in their history. It was in this spirit that Zionist envoys were dispatched to Palestine to report on the successes of Jewish colonization of the country.
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Adolf Eichmann returned from his trip to Palestine full of fantastic stories about the achievements of the racially-separatist Ashkenazi Kibbutz, one of which he visited on Mount Carmel as a guest of the Zionists. Despite the overwhelming opposition of most German Jews, it was the Zionist Federation of Germany that was the only Jewish group that supported the Nuremberg Laws ofas they agreed with the Nazis that Jews and Aryans were separate and separable races.
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This was not a tactical support but one based on ideological similitude. It is this shared goal of expelling Jews from Europe as a separate unassimilable race that created the affinity between Nazis and Zionists all along. While the majority of Jews continued to resist the anti-Semitic basis of Zionism and its alliances with anti-Semites, the Nazi genocide not only killed 90 percent of European Jews, but in the process also killed the majority of Jewish enemies of Zionism who died precisely because they refused to heed the Zionist call of abandoning their countries and homes.
On the contrary, these countries shared with the Nazis a predilection for Zionism. European countries, along with the United States, refused to take in hundreds of thousands of Jewish survivors of the holocaust.
In fact, these countries voted against a UN resolution introduced by the Arab states in calling on them to take in the Jewish survivors, yet these same countries would be the ones who would support the United Nations Partition Plan of November to create a Jewish State in Palestine to which these unwanted Jewish refugees could be expelled.
Post-War West German governments anti aging charlatani austin presented themselves as opening a new page in anti aging charlatani austin relationship with Jews in reality did no such thing. Since the establishment of the country after WWII, every West German government and every German government since unification in has continued the pro-Zionist Nazi policies unabated.
There was never a break with Nazi pro-Zionism.
Throughout history people have knocked their heads against the riddle of the nature of feminity…Nor will you have escaped worrying over this problem-those of you who are men; to those of you who are women this will not apply-you are yourselves the problem Thus, women are seen by freud as mere objects of desire and objects of the question.
The only break was with the genocidal and racial hatred of Jews that Nazism consecrated, but not with the desire to see Jews set up in a country in Asia, away from Europe. Indeed, the Germans would explain that much of the money they were sending to Israel was to help offset the costs of resettling European Jewish refugees in the country.
Gurdjieff arriving in the United States in January, -- aged 58, 52, or 47? When a 37 year old P. Gurdjieff had different passports over the years that gave different birth dates. Up to around the most common years given for his birth have been andalthough few writers citing these dates have provided any justification for doing so. Gurdjieff claimed to be 78 years old inand 83 years old in the year of his death.
After World War II, a new consensus emerged in the United States and Europe that Jews had to be integrated posthumously into white Europeanness, and that the horror of the Jewish holocaust was essentially a horror at the murder of white Europeans. Since the s, Hollywood films about the holocaust began to depict Jewish victims of Nazism as white Christian-looking, middle class, educated and talented people not unlike contemporary European and American Christians who should and would identify with them.
Presumably if the films were to depict the poor religious Jews of Eastern Europe and most East European Jews who were killed by the Nazis were poor and many were religiouscontemporary white Christians would not find commonality with them.
Hence, the post-holocaust European Christian horror at the genocide of European Jews was not based on the horror of slaughtering people in the millions who were different from European Christians, but rather a horror at the murder of millions of people who were thesame as European Christians. This explains why in a country like the United States, which had nothing to do with the slaughter of European Jews, there exists upwards of 40 holocaust memorials and a major museum for the murdered Jews of Europe, but not one for the holocaust of Native Americans or African Americans for which the US is responsible.
Aimé Césaire understood this process very well. In his famous speech on colonialism, he affirmed that the retrospective view of European Christians about Nazism is that it is barbarism, but the supreme barbarism, the crowning barbarism that sums up all the daily barbarisms; that it is Nazism, yes, but that before [Europeans] were its victims, they were its accomplices; and they tolerated that Nazism before it was inflicted on them, that they absolved it, shut their eyes to it, legitimised it, because, until then, it had been applied only to non-European peoples; that they have anti aging charlatani austin that Nazism, that they are responsible for it, and that before engulfing the whole of Western, Christian civilisation in its reddened waters, it oozes, seeps, and trickles from every crack.
That for Césaire the Nazi wars and holocaust were European colonialism turned inwards is true enough. That Israel would jump on the bandwagon by accusing the Soviets of anti-Semitism for their refusal to allow Soviet Jewish citizens to self-expel and leave to Israel was part of the propaganda.