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General presentation of the site The Tărtăria-Pietroşița archaeological site, or Site 10, as it was called during the archaeological excavations, is situated above the Mureş riverside, on the left bank, in the Orăştie Corridor5 Fig. The scientific coordinator was Iosif Vasile Ferencz, PhD, on behalf of the Museum of Dacian and Roman Civilisation, Deva: the institution that organised the preventive archaeological research project at the Tărtăria-Pietroşița site.
Studii, articole, note [The Neolithic of Transylvania.
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Domnului Prof. To Prof. This paper focuses on area A, which is situated in the eastern, higher part of the site.
The results of the excavation at Tărtăria-Pietroşița have been spectacular; the site proved to be extremely varied regarding the cultural and, implicitly, chronological realities. Of particular importance are those belonging to the late Eneolithic, namely the Coțofeni archaeological culture. Coțofeni culture complexes were identified along the entire metre section, and most of the pits that were dug to extract clay, middens, and partially sunken cottage-like dwellings, contained pottery with characteristics typical rid între nas și frunte Coțofeni phases I and II as defined by Petre Roman7 and other later studies.
Ferencz, Cristian C. VI : ; Iosif V. Ferencz and Cristian C. Material from the Coțofeni site at Tărtăria-Pietroşița includes pottery, osteological remains, stone tools and architectural elements of the complex, such as clay walls, hearths etc.
One exception to the typical finds was a single metallic object found in area A Fig. The cross-section of the eastern half of the pit, which was unaffected by the C 18 pit-house Fig.
After the complex was completed, pit C 28 had a maximum diameter of approximately 1.
The most interesting discoveries were made in the inferior part of the pit. During the archaeological excavation, in almost barren yellowish-brown soil with calcareous concretions, two fragments from a Coțofeni ceramic vessel appeared. On the exterior, they had clay slip and no other decorations.
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One lay in the concavity of the other and they faced north, on the edge of C 28 Fig. Photograph of the terrace from the Mureş riverside containing the Tărtăria- Pietroşița site Photo: I. During the same excavation, the aforementioned metallic artefact was also uncovered, in the soil that filled the inferior level of pit C The degreasing agent used in the ceramic paste was a mixture of fine sand, pebbles and organic matter. The presence of mica was, in our opinion, due either to the use of alluvial sands or to the structure of the terraces.
The brick-red, yellowish- brown, brown or grey-back nuances on the surfaces of the potsherds resulted from firing in the presence or absence of oxygen. Another characteristic of this potsherd was a perforation made under the rim before the firing process, indicating that this vessel was designed to hang13 Fig.
For other opinions regarding the chronology of the Coțofeni material from Oradea-Salca-Ghețărie, see Ciugudean, Eneoliticul final, Barbu and Antoniu T. IV : 54, Pl. Another ceramic piece was lobate in shape, with a vertically perforated semicircular handle Fig. Based on the orignal shape of the vessel and its decorative characteristics, it may correspond to a Coțofeni II finding from Unirea-Dealu Cămării, although its morphologic characteristics are slightly different.
Pit C 28 and its relation with the dwelling C 18 Photo: I. A B Fig. Layout of C 28 on the edge of C 18 Photo: I. Bărbat ; B. The cross-section of C 28 Photo: C. One particular potsherd from C 28 Fig. Detail from the bottom of pit C 28 during the excavations Photo: C. Based on the preserved characteristics of their ornamentation, two other potsherds Fig.
The potsherds from complex C 28 include casting manechin foto suisse anti aging from casting manechin foto suisse anti aging category of cups.
The first, fragmentary specimen is from the inferior part of such a vessel Fig. Its ornamentation takes the form of strips of short, transversally incised lines, similar to hatchings. The almost fine style of the potsherd, together with the grey-black colour and the stylistic evolution of the decoration link it to finds from phases I and II of the Coțofeni culture.
It is even possible that, with the proper hafting, it could have been used as a weapon. Bărbat; drawing: M. Supporting the above observations, microscopic analysis of the artefact revealed a 1 cm section in the middle of the object that was unprocessed, with a smooth surface Fig. RTI image of the awl Photo: C. A few blemishes from the hot or cold forging stage can be distinguished on the body of the artefact, its surface is not smooth, and its two extremities are slightly uneven perhaps due to usage.
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The active distal part has been carefully finished and is almost circular in cross-section, probably a result of thinning the metal bar by hammering. An extremely sharp and functional tip was obtained by scraping it on a rock Fig. The active part of the tool is bent ° with respect to the rest of it, which, in our opinion, suggests that it was used for a specific kind of task, possibly in leather manufacturing.
Microscopic details of the tool Photo: M. Microscopic details of the tool without scale Photo: C. The haft proximal part, for attaching plant or animal fibres, was made by hammering, its form obtained by gradually bending the metallic object from its medial section to the extremity, where its transverse section becomes almost flat Fig.
The same part of the object seems to also show dints that may have appeared during its usage?
Discussion The first issue to address is the relative chronology of complex In the present state of the excavations, this can only be deduced from characteristics of the ceramic material. Based on the aforementioned analogies with potsherds from other sites, it seems that pit C 28 could have been from phases I and II of the Coțofeni culture.
On the other hand, the various shapes and ornamentation of ceramics found there, some characteristic of Coțofeni phase I and others of phase II, suggest that casting manechin foto suisse anti aging could date from the late Coțofeni I period and the beginning of Coțofeni II. Lenin,51 Şoimuş-Avicola52 and Lângă Sat. In the current literature, the subject of awls from this period has been somewhat neglected, in comparison with published details about heavier or larger copper objects.
Although awls casting manechin foto suisse anti aging often mentioned, many publications give no detailed information regarding their dimensions, shape or weight.
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Choosing an appropriate typology was therefore difficult: the descriptions we found did not completely match the awl from C 28, and we can only presume that the related objects mentioned in other sources are typologically similar to it. Today, the street is named Bulevardul Iuliu Maniu. Until similar discoveries are made, it can be considered one-of-a- kind within this cultural space.
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But perhaps the most compelling cause would be the general context of the evolution of metallurgy and the processing of materials in the Late Eneolithic period in Central and Southeastern Europe, which may have been on a relatively lower scale than the previous period, which had true copper metallurgy. Representing relevant finds from the Developed Eneolithic period, we selectively highlight some copper awls uncovered over the years in the Gumelnița culture environment, in tells at Căscioarele-Ostrovel68 Fig.
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VII :, Fig. Considerații [Le néolithique sur le territoire de la Roumanie. Awls from the Developed Eneolithic period.